Bacterial cultures

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Cultures we have in-house

Places to order cheese making cultures online:

Available in store at:

"The Mesophilic cultures will produce the acidity during the first part of the process.Then, after the cheese is salted and in the cave, the Thermophilic cultures begin to work in a ripening capacity to break down the complex proteins into simpler components."

Contents

Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (LL)

Mesophilic Lactic Acid Starter Culture

  • [one of] the two main lactic acid producing bacteria used by the cheese industry
  • Homofermentive lactococci, primarily used for producing lactic acid.
  • Temperature growth range = 10° - 42°C (50°- 108° F)
  • Optimum growth rate = 25° - 30°C (77°- 86° F)
  • Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris is more salt sensitive (<4%) and more temperature sensitive (40°C/104°F) than Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis

Quotes:

  • Used in making a variety of hard, moderate temperature loving cheeses including Cheddar, Monterey Jack, Stilton, Edam, Gouda, Muenster, Blue, and Colby.
  • Used in making a variety of semi-soft and fresh cheeses including Cheddar, Colby, Monterrey Jack, Feta and Chevre.
  • Used in making a variety of soft ripened and fresh cheeses including Brie, Camembert, Gouda, Edam, Blue, Feta, Havarti and Chevre
  • MA culture is the basic mesophilic lactic acid culture. It is the most common culture type for making cheddar, colby, Monterey jack and cottage cheese.

When added to milk, Lactococcus lactis produces lactic acid from lactose in the milk. Lactic acid works with rennet to coagulate casein to form curds for cheese production. Additionally, lactic acid lowers the pH and protects the product from undesirable bacteria and mold growth. Lactic acid is also responsible for the acidic flavor of unripened cheese.

The bacteria release proteomic and lipolytic enzymes used in ripening cheeses. Diacetyl and aldehydes produced by the bacteria produce volatile flavor compounds. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis also produces nisin, which acts as a natural antibiotic against different strains of Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria, Staphylococcus and Clostridium. [1]

Growth Media

ATCC lists the following growth media:

MRS and M17 media are commonly used to grow L. Lactis but these are complex media that are not well-defined. In one study, two different completely defined media were formulated for L. lactis growth. The media was made by adding MOPS buffer to either BL medium or SA medium and supplementing with additional amino acids. (Jensen and Hammer, 1993) [2].

L. lactis can be grown using the following carbon sources: fructose, galactose, glucosamine, glucose, lactose, maltose, mannitol, mannose, ribose, sucrose and trehalose. The growth rates are the same using glucose, mannose, galactose, sucrose, lactose and glucosamine, and slower with fructose and mannitol. [3]

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (LLC)

Mesophilic Lactic Acid Starter Culture

  • [one of] the two main lactic acid producing bacteria used by the cheese industry
  • Homofermentive lactococci, primarily used for producing lactic acid.
  • Temperature growth range = 10° - 42°C (50°- 108° F)
  • Optimum growth rate = 25° - 30°C (77°- 86° F)
  • Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris is more salt sensitive (<4%) and more temperature sensitive (40°C/104°F) than Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis

Quotes:

  • Used in making a variety of hard, moderate temperature loving cheeses including Cheddar, Monterey Jack, Stilton, Edam, Gouda, Muenster, Blue, and Colby.
  • Used in making a variety of semi-soft and fresh cheeses including Cheddar, Colby, Monterrey Jack, Feta and Chevre.
  • Used in making a variety of soft ripened and fresh cheeses including Brie, Camembert, Gouda, Edam, Blue, Feta, Havarti and Chevre
  • MA culture is the basic mesophilic lactic acid culture. It is the most common culture type for making cheddar, colby, Monterey jack and cottage cheese.
  • For the production of Cheddar, Colby, Brick, Brie, Camembert, Jack, Stilton, Blue and Feta cheeses.

Growth Media

ATCC lists the following growth media:

Lactococcus lactis subsp. biovar diacetylactis (LLD)

Mesophilic Aroma Culture

  • Temperature growth range = 5° - 38°C (41°- 100° F)
  • Optimum growth and diacetyl flavor producing range = 18° - 25°C (64°- 77° F)
  • Production of CO2
  • Lactococcus lactis biovar diacetylactis also will produce lactic acid in addition to diacetyl and CO2

Quotes:

  • Used in combination with other mesophilic cultures to enhance the flavor in fresh cheeses and soft ripened cheeses: Brie/Camembert, Chevre and Blue. This culture is not normally used just by itself (it will not produce enough acid in the cheese). This culture is used to enhance flavor (buttery) and produce some small eyes in cheese such Edam or Havarti. Suggest use as a flavor enhancer for your cheese.
  • Used in making a variety of soft ripened and fresh cheeses including Brie, Camembert, Gouda, Edam, Blue, Feta, Havarti and Chevre
  • Used in combination with other mesophilic cultures lactic acid bacteria to enhance the flavor in fresh cheeses and soft ripened cheeses: Brie, Camembert, Chevre, Blue, Cream Cheese and Butter. Although it is a good acid producer, this culture is not typically used alone. It produces a lot of CO2 gas. This culture is used to enhance flavor (buttery notes) and produce some small eyes in cheese such as Edam or Havarti. Suggested use is as a flavor enhancer for your cheese.

Growth Media

ATCC lists the following growth media:

Streptococcus thermophilus (ST)

Thermophilic Acid Starter Culture

  • Temperature growth range = 20° - 52°C (68°- 125° F)
  • Optimum growth and flavor production range will vary for each individual culture

Quotes:

  • S. thermophilis will serve as a ripening culture a bit later in the process. After the cheese is salted and in the cave, the Thermophilic cultures begin to work in a ripening capacity to break down the complex proteins into simpler components.
  • Used to make Mozzarella, Parmesan, Provolone, Romano, Swiss, Gruyere, and other Italian style cheeses, which grow in higher temperature ranges.
  • A Thermophilic acid producing culture for typical hard, Italian & Swiss cheeses such as Parmesan, Romano, Mozzarella, Provolone, Emmenthaler/Swiss.
  • The lactic acid starter TA 60 series (GetCulture offers TA 61) are "fast" thermophilic strains of Streptococcus thermophilus (speed of acidification as compared to the TA 50 series). TA 61 is used for making Italian and Swiss cheeses such as mozzarella, parmesan, Romano, provolone, Emmental/Swiss.
  • Direct-set thermophilic culture for hard, Italian & Swiss cheeses (Parmesan, Romano, Provolone, Emmental/Swiss).

S. thermophilus has a limited capacity to utilize carbohydrates, and the primary function of S. thermophilus in industrial dairy fermentation is the conversion of lactose to lactate at elevated temperatures. S. thermophilus, unlike many other Gram-positive bacteria, prefers lactose to glucose as its primary carbon and energy source, which has led to the adaptation of the global control mechanism towards the fine-tuning of lactose uptake and subsequent catabolism by glycolysis. [...] S. thermophilus is unable to metabolize galactose (Gal−) and thus expels this sugar into the medium during lactose fermentation ( De Vin et al., 2005, Mora et al., 2002, Vaillancourt et al., 2004, Vaillancourt et al., 2008 and Vaillancourt et al., 2002). [...] The ability of S. thermophilus to produce extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) is important for the dairy industry, as it enhances the texture of fermented milk products such as yoghurt. S. thermophilus EPS consists of heterosaccharide polymers, primarily of galactose, glucose and rhamnose monomers, but N-polymers containing acetyl-galactosamine, fucose, and acetylated galactose moieties have also been reported ( Laws, Gu, & Marshall, 2001). [4]

This suggests we should be able to grow S. thermophilus on sucrose and glucose, but not much else. It is unusual in that it actually grows better on lactose than glucose, even though it cannot digest the galactose half of lactose. However, if we grow it on a carbon source that does not include galactose, this may significantly affect the exoplysaccharides it produces, which may affect texture. --Patrik (talk) 19:55, 26 February 2015 (EST)

We have purchased the following S. thermophilus strains:

The first one of these is actually Streptococcus salivarius ssp thermophilus. Might want to do some research on how that one differs from the strict S. thermophilus.

Growth Media

ATCC lists the following growth media:

Lactobacillus paracasei

"The Sacco Lyofast CA 35 consists of a propietory strain of Lactobacillus.paracasei. This helpful non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) is beneficial in all aged cheese styles. It intensifies flavor and aroma, accelerates ripening, reduces bitterness, improves overall texture -and is very helpful in preventing contamination from unwanted elements. As a non-starter culture, acid production is not significant enough to alter the acidity profile of the cheese".

Growth Media

ATCC lists the following growth media:

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB)

Thermophilic Acid Starter Culture

  • Temperature growth range = 20° - 52°C (68°- 125° F)
  • Optimum growth and flavor production range will vary for each individual culture

Quotes:

  • Used to make Mozzarella, Parmesan, Provolone, Romano, Swiss, Gruyere, and other Italian style cheeses, which grow in higher temperature ranges.
  • Thermophilic blend used for Italian cheeses. Contains a blend of the S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus.

Growth Media

ATCC lists the following growth media:

Lactobacillus helveticus (LH)

Thermophilic Acid Starter Culture

  • Temperature growth range = 20° - 52°C (68°- 125° F)
  • Optimum growth and flavor production range will vary for each individual culture

Quotes:

  • Used to make Cheddar, semi-hard cheeses
  • Used to make Mozzarella, Parmesan, Provolone, Romano, Swiss, Gruyere, and other Italian style cheeses, which grow in higher temperature ranges.
  • This culture blend contains an additional thermophilic culture (L. helveticus) that can aid in enhanced flavor and texture as the cheese ages. It will produce a slight "nutty" flavor found in aged cheddars and parmesan type cheese.
  • Thermophilic blend used for high cook cheeses. Contains S. thermophilus and L. helveticus cultures.
  • Swiss, Gruyere, Jarlsburg and Emmental varieties.
  • LH100 is a thermophilic culture that functions as a flavor and texture enhancer when used in combination with TA culture for hard cheese, Italian cheeses, and Swiss cheeses. Produces a mild "nutty" flavor as well as helping breakdown the protein.

Growth Media

ATCC lists the following growth media:

Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR)

See Spec Sheet!

Homofermentative protective culture with very slow acidification. HOLDBAC™ LC LYO 100 DCU forms lactic acid of the L(+) type and decomposes small quantities of citrate to diacetyl and acetoin. It is very resistant to salt. As proved, this culture inhibits growth and activity of undesired microorganisms in a biological way (depending on strain and species), e.g. leuconostoc, heterofermentative lactobacilli and enterococci.

Quotes:

  • Raw milk gas reducer
  • Holdbac culture can be added along with your Mesophilic or Thermophilic starter to provide natural biological, efficient spoilage and pathogen protection. Very slow acidification, provides control of late blowing in aged cheeses. Growth control of leuconostoc, heterofermentative lactobacilli and enterococci. Holdbac can help to reduce or eliminate those pesky little holes that sometimes form inside the cheese.

Growth Media

ATCC lists the following growth media:

Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (LMC)

Mesophilic Aroma Culture

  • Temperature growth range = 5° - 38°C (41°- 100° F)
  • Optimum growth and diacetyl flavor producing range = 18° - 25°C (64°- 77° F)
  • Production of CO2

Quotes:

  • Used in producing Cottage Cheese, Pot Cheese, Neufchatel and other soft cheeses. It comes in one package and a mother culture must be incubated.
  • Special mesophilic culture blend used for specialty fresh and soft cheeses, sour cream and cultured butter. *Popular blend for goat-milk cheeses, Havarti, Baby Swiss, Gouda, Edam, Blue, etc.. Promotes the production of diacetyl/CO2 flavor similar to Aroma B.
  • This mesophilic culture produces very minimal amounts of lactic acid. Its primary purpose is to produce CO2 (gas) and diacetyl (butter flavor) when used in cheese and fermented milk fermentation. It is often used as an enhancer with the MM series for blue cheeses and Gouda to create more gas and openness in the cheese. This culture is also the primary flavor culture for sour cream, buttermilk and cream cheese.

Growth Media

ATCC lists the following growth media:

Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii (PS)

Quotes:

  • This produces the characteristic eyes (holes), aroma and flavor associated with Swiss, Gruyere and Emmenthal. This culture must be used with a Thermophilic culture (C2 or C201) for preparing Swiss-type cheeses. It cannot be recultured.
  • This culture is used as an adjunct primarily for the eye formation, aroma and flavor production (propionic acid) in Swiss-type cheeses. Usually used along with a TA series culture and LH100 culture. Optimum growth temperature range of propionibacteria is 86-99° F.

Growth Media

ATCC lists the following growth media:

Staphylococcus xylosus II

Quotes:

  • Adjunct culture for helping with aroma-development through protein and fat breakdown.
  • Washed rind and smear farmstead cheeses.

Growth Media

ATCC lists the following growth media:


Molds

Geotrichum candidum

http://www.cheesemaking.com/shop/geotrichum-candidum-white-mold-powder-1-pack.html

Quotes:

  • This mold powder will produce a white to cream color surface and it plays a significant role in the ripening process for surface ripened cheese of the soft ripened or washed rind types. It greatly influences the appearance, structure and flavor of Brie and Camembert, along with a variety of goat cheeses. It also helps prevent the skin from slipping off of your cheese. In red smear cheeses it helps neutralize the surface of the cheese and stimulates the development of desired, acid-sensitive flora such as P.candidum.
  • Geotrichum can also be used in conjunction with Brevibacterium linens to creat the right conditions for the formation of the surface smear on washed rind cheeses.

Penicillium candidum

http://www.cheesemaking.com/shop/penicillium-candidum-white-mold-powder-1-pack.html

Quotes:

  • Penicillium Candidum (white mold) is used to ripen and flavor Brie, Camembert, Coulommiers, and a variety of French Goat Cheeses. It produces a nice, white bloom on the surface of your cheeses. It is highly recommended to use this in combination with Geotrichum Candidum, which helps prevent the skin from slipping off your finished cheese.

Penicillium roqueforti

http://www.cheesemaking.com/shop/roqueforti-blue-mold-powder-1-4-oz.html

Quotes:

  • Penicillium Roqueforti (blue mold) is used to ripen and give flavor to Blue, Gorgonzola, and Stilton cheeses. This mold gives an intense blue-green marbled interior, piquant aroma and creamy consistency.

Brevibacterium linens

http://www.cheesemaking.com/shop/bacteria-linens-red-mold-powder-1-pack.html

Quotes:

  • Bacteria Linens (red mold) is used in making surface-ripened or interior mold-ripened cheeses such as Brick, Limburger and Muenster. It develops rapidly, ensures a good ripening, and produces flavor.

This can be added to the milk at the beginning of the process as well as used in the wash (needs re-hydrating for 8-12 hrs in light salt wash) during the ripening process for washed rind cheeses. The characteristic yellow to orange color may take 15-20 days to develop.

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